To trace an IP address, you must first understand how the protocols function. Each computer with Internet connection has a unique identifier, known as an IP address, that identifies that computer. It makes no difference where the computer is located or who is utilising it.
Nevertheless, the question begs. How does a machine acquire a unique IP address? Moreover, is it possible for computers to acquire IP addresses as the case requires?
You must be aware that the correct response to these questions is “no.” How then do computers obtain IP addresses? To comprehend how IP addresses function, you must first comprehend what Regional Internet Registries (RIR) are, how they function, and why they exist. In this blog, we’ll tell you what are regional internet registries (RIRs) and how to get IPv4 addresses from RIRs.
What are Regional Internet Registries (RIR)?
Regional Internet Registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the IP addresses of all the computers in a particular region. RIRs typically cover countries, and sometimes even entire continents. Therefore, the Regional Internet Registry is responsible for assigning IP addresses to the various computers. However, why must IP numbers only be assigned by Regional Internet Registries?
When the Internet first emerged, it was not nearly as popular as it is now, and few countries had access to it. As it grew, however, it became necessary for organisations to restrict the demand for IP addresses. Thus, the several Regional Internet Registries were established.
Types of Regional Internet Registries
There are now millions of Internet users around the globe, and five Regional Internet Registries serve them.
1. The American Registry for Internet Numbers
The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is responsible for assigning IP addresses throughout North America, including the United States, Canada, and a portion of the Caribbean.
2. RIPE NCC
RIPE NCC supervises the distribution of IP addresses throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Officially, RIPE NCC is the first Regional Internet Registry.
3. Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC)
The APNIC assigns IP addresses to Asia-Pacific region computers. It was founded in Japan, in Tokyo. After the RIPE NCC, APNIC was the second Regional Internet Registry to be formed.
4. Latin America and Caribbean Internet Address Registry (LACNIC)
LACNIC serves the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean from its headquarters in Montevideo, Uruguay.
5. The African Network Information Center (AFRINIC)
AfriNIC, based in Ebene City, Mauritius, is responsible for allocating IP addresses for the African subcontinent.
How does the IP Address Allocation work?
Each new block registered with a RIR receives an initial allocation of one /8 from the IANA. Each individual IP address, however, has a shelf life of about 18 months, thus the allocation isn’t infinite.
When the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) distributes IP addresses to the Regional Internet Registries, those organisations in turn distribute those IP addresses to their respective end users.
When assigning IP addresses, RIRs should be fair and consistent in how they distribute available AS numbers. In addition to this, the RIRs must guarantee that a single organisation has sole authority over assigning each IP address and ASN. Without RIRs, it can be difficult to reliably assign IP addresses to machines.
Similar to how RIRs are responsible for ensuring inter-regional connectivity, it is also their job to make sure the world’s networks run smoothly and without interruptions. The corporation must safeguard against one area sucking up all the available resources.
There may be rare cases in which the IANA does provide IP addresses to end users, but this is not the norm. RIRs, on the other hand, are the ones who actually do the doling out of IP addresses to consumers and ISPs. Addresses are first distributed to regional Internet registries, who then distribute them to individual users.
It’s not easy to figure out how to divide up these funds. The success of this initiative will depend on the stringency and complexity of the membership standards and policies, as well as the level of cooperation and coordination among the many organizations. Everyone involved in the assignment of IPv4 addresses, from the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) through the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and from the LIRs to the end user, must work together.